02042nas a2200169 4500008004100000022001400041245005400055210005300109260001600162300001800178490000800196520156000204100002101764700001901785700002401804856004401828 2012 eng d a0027-842400aFrom the Cover: Anomalously weak solar convection0 aFrom the Cover Anomalously weak solar convection cDec-07-2013 a11928 - 119320 v1093 aConvection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures on a spectrum of scales. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations, though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. Here, we analyze observations of the wavefield in the solar photosphere using techniques of time-distance helioseismology to image flows in the solar interior. We downsample and synthesize 900 billion wavefield observations to produce 3 billion cross-correlations, which we average and fit, measuring 5 million wave travel times. Using these travel times, we deduce the underlying flow systems and study their statistics to bound convective velocity magnitudes in the solar interior, as a function of depth and spherical-harmonic degree ℓ. Within the wavenumber band ℓ < 60, convective velocities are 20–100 times weaker than current theoretical estimates. This constraint suggests the prevalence of a different paradigm of turbulence from that predicted by existing models, prompting the question: what mechanism transports the heat flux of a solar luminosity outwards? Advection is dominated by Coriolis forces for wavenumbers ℓ < 60, with Rossby numbers smaller than approximately 10-2 at r/R⊙ = 0.96, suggesting that the Sun may be a much faster rotator than previously thought, and that large-scale convection may be quasi-geostrophic. The fact that isorotation contours in the Sun are not coaligned with the axis of rotation suggests the presence of a latitudinal entropy gradient. 1 aHanasoge, S., M.1 aDuvall, T., L.1 aSreenivasan, K., R. uhttps://www.pveducation.org/ko/node/52800509nas a2200157 4500008004100000022001400041245009800055210006900153260001200222300001400234490000700248100001900255700001600274700001700290856004400307 2005 eng d a1099-159X00aFundamental boron-oxygen-related carrier lifetime limit in mono- and multicrystalline silicon0 aFundamental boronoxygenrelated carrier lifetime limit in mono an c06/2005 a287 - 2960 v131 aBothe, Karsten1 aSinton, Ron1 aSchmidt, Jan uhttps://www.pveducation.org/ko/node/28700379nas a2200121 4500008004100000245004800041210004700089260003000136300001000166100002000176700001700196856004400213 1986 eng d00aFlat-Plate Solar Array Project Final Report0 aFlatPlate Solar Array Project Final Report bJet Propulsion Laboratory a86-311 aRoss, Jnr., R G1 aSmokler, M I uhttps://www.pveducation.org/ko/node/37200348nas a2200109 4500008004100000245005400041210005300095260001800148300001400166100001400180856004400194 1980 eng d00aFlat-Plate Photovoltaic Array Design Optimization0 aFlatPlate Photovoltaic Array Design Optimization aSan Diego, CA a1126-11321 aRoss, R G uhttps://www.pveducation.org/ko/node/373